Mitragyna speciosa
By Jonathan Roseland

I'm not a doctor, medical professional, or trained therapist. I'm a researcher and pragmatic biohacking practitioner exercising free speech to share evidence as I find it. I make no claims. Please practice skepticism and rational critical thinkingYou should consult a professional about any serious decisions that you might make about your health. Affiliate links in this article support Limitless Mindset - spend over $150 and you'll be eligible to join the Limitless Mindset Secret Society.

Kratom is a mind-altering herbal compound from South East Asia. It's an edgier variety of psychoactive flora that I'm not sure I recommend.

Performance Enhancer
A Cognition Non-Enhancer
"Not for human consumption"
Scientific Research
Kratom Strains
"Maeng Da"
Where to Buy Kratom
Mechanism of Action
Kratom Addiction?
Side Effects
Bottom Line
Why Take Kratom
Kratom Videos

This article is mostly going to focus on decoding what the human studies are saying about Kratom and how this squares up with the anecdotal experiences of the Kratom community online. For more of my own personal experiences, thoughts, and comparisons please see the written and video reviews in the sidebar.

 Performance Enhancer

In Thailand, it's been used for a long time to increase the work output of laborers and increase tolerance to the beating sun. It's most commonly described as putting users into a headspace that is happy, and active, with a strong desire to do work. They traditionally consume it as tea, chew its leaves, or smoke it. Kratom is indisputably a performance enhancer, there's a near-universal consensus among Kratom users that it makes them work harder:

  • The whole-body energizing effect makes it a favorite of physical laborers and gym rats alike.
  • A lot of bloggers and writers find it makes them more creatively energetic.
  • White strains are commonly used as a coffee or caffeine substitute.

Victor from Bold & Determined felt quite strongly about this...

"Normally in the afternoon from about 3-7pm I am just shutdown. I’m beat. I’m useless. The worst part about the afternoon hours is that I get “brain fog”. On Kratom the brain fog just goes away and I don’t feel rundown. On Kratom I feel peppy, happy, ready to work and just plain good... On “bad days”, Kratom makes the bad go away. Kratom gives me a feeling of well-being but not sedation. I always want to work when using Kratom."

 A Cognition Non-Enhancer

Brain trainingI'm a big fan of cognitive enhancers, which Kratom is not, for that reason, I'm going to refer to it as a non-Nootropic performance enhancer.

This is not just my own opinion but was confirmed by a 2014 paper, Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom), out of Universiti Sains in Malaysia, which was quite bearish on Kratom, comparing it to morphine. From its abstract:

Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram... Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug.


Like a lot of herbs that grow abundantly in nature, it's been used by the locals since time immemorial mostly for recreational purposes. In Thailand, it's also used traditionally...

  • As an opium substitute
  • To taper off other drug addictions
  • To prolong sexual intercourse

In 1943 Thailand made it illegal, treating it like cocaine or heroin, being in possession of just one ounce is punishable by death there. It has a bit of a bad reputation there as something mostly used by low-class degenerates.

 "Not for human consumption"

Technically, at least in the United States, it cannot be sold for human consumption - it's sold as incense that you burn. So when you hear people on the internet saying that they "burned" Kratom, they didn't actually burn it. I'll continue to use this lingo to describe my consumption of it. As you'll discover, I'm not advocating that you consume it, but you are a free agent in hopefully a free country and you can consume whatever you want to.

Google searching Kratom you'll kind of find two extremes of opinion...

  1. You'll find some fear-mongering pieces about how it's dangerous, addictive, associated with suicides, and a product of a wild wild west industry.
  2. On the other side, you'll find a lot of people who describe it as a wonder supplement and call all the negatives big pharma propaganda.

I'm generally a libertarian, free-thinking type and I believe that it's none of the government's damn business what we choose to consume. I think people should be able to put in their bodies whatever they want as long as they can afford it and find someone in the free market to sell it to them. However, for a moment, I'm going to take off my conspiracy theorist hat and put on my arbitrary contrarian hat...

 Scientific Research

Pubmed returns nearly 200 search results for Kratom; of those 100 are human research done within the past five years, which is a good sign. Research is being done but it lacks a body of gold-standard clinical trials. And there is not exactly an abundance of scientific literature reporting the positive effects of Kratom. That should be important to anyone considering using it, the majority of human research focuses on the addictiveness and dangers while documenting some related suicide cases.

As far as I can determine the only positive use documented in the recent scientific literature is in treating Opioid withdrawal or chronic pain. There was just a single 2013 paper using positive language describing Kratom. From its abstract:

...addiction potential and adverse health consequences are becoming an important issue for health authorities... Here we reviewed the available evidence and identified future research needs. It was found that mitragynine and M. speciosa preparations are systematically consumed with rather well defined instrumentalization goals, e.g. to enhance tolerance for hard work or as a substitute in the self-treatment of opiate addiction. There is also evidence from experimental animal models supporting analgesic, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory as well as strong anorectic effects... Altogether, available data currently suggest both, a therapeutic as well as an abuse potential.

In comparison, a similar Pubmed search on Ayahuasca (which I've also tried) returns about double the human research done in the past 10 years. And on the first page of the search results, there are at least 7 articles of scientific literature documenting the positive effects of Ayahuasca. So if there's a big pharma, evil-capitalist-conspiracy to demonize Kratom then why isn't there a similar demonization of Ayahuasca?

There is an interview that everyone should watch about Kratom with a doctor Julio Ferrari, MS (coolest name ever!) In the interview, he mentions that there is yet to be done a good human study of the beneficial effects of Kratom. So if you choose your performance enhancers and supplements based upon science as opposed to online hype or anecdotal reports you may want to pass on Kratom until it has a clinical trial done demonstrating beneficial effects.

 Kratom Strains

Kratom is a little different than some other categories of enhancers I've tried. All forms of Modafinil have pretty much the same effect regardless of brand or drug subcategory. It's the same with the Racetams and a lot of Nutraceuticals. Kratom is a different story, different strains of Kratom can have opposite effects. Let's look at the three notable strains and their corresponding effects...


Kratom white

  • Treating depression
  • Increased focus and energy
  • Increased productivity and motivation


Green Kratom

  • Mental health support and mood stability
  • Relaxed-arousal
  • A milder boost in energy


Red Kratom

  • Improving sleep quality
  • Alleviating insomnia
  • Easing anxiety and stress
  • Relieving pain

 "Maeng Da"

Literally means "Pimp Grade" - this silly name just signifies a higher-potency strain.

 Where to Buy Kratom

Kratom is a bit of a wild wild west industry...

  • Quality is a concern any time you are dealing with a product that comes from a plant and has to cross an ocean in a giant ship to reach you.
  • If you are going to try Kratom, you don't want to buy it from a headshop or liquor store (which carry it sometimes).
  • You want to buy it someplace online that's reputable and can ideally show a certificate of analysis, where they acquired it from, or its expiration date. Because it's not a supplement for human consumption, they aren't held responsible for what happens if you consume it. The great thing about the Internet is that it has made merchants in wild wild west markets, like Kratom, paranoid about their reputations. One disgruntled customer ranting on Reddit can show up in the search results forever.
  • If you buy from a well-known vendor online your chances of getting good stuff are high.
  • Be wary of Kratom extracts, they are a concentration of the most addictive chemicals in Kratom and will lead to building up a steep tolerance fast.

Unfortunately, there is no Kratom source that I can recommend in good faith that meets the high standards I have for Nootropics or health supplements. The Kratom biz is rife with faceless fly-by-night operators with eCommerce websites that fail to prove the quality or purity of their products.

A possible exception to this might be the vendor Kraken Kratom, apparently, they are the first (and only) vendor that has good manufacturing practices standards certified by the American Kratom Association.

Since they claim to have higher standards than the rest of the industry I reached out to them and asked them to prove it by showing their COAs. They met me halfway, sending me their COAs but asked me not to share them publicly. I did inspect their COAs, which do not reveal catastrophic amounts of toxins or anything. This is a step towards transparency and they seem to have higher standards than anyone else in the Kratom biz. If I was going to order Kratom, I would order it from them.

Downloadable Kratom?

You may be interested in taking it as an infoceutical - a non-pharmacological, side-effect-free version of the supplement that takes advantage of the phenomenon of water memory - which is imprinted on water via quantum collocation and electromagnetism using this device...

Infocueticals typically have 1/3 or half the effect of the actual medicine being imprinted. If you're skeptical of Infopathy that's understandable, it's a game-changing application of a little-known scientific phenomenon. But I'd urge you to evaluate the scientific evidence (presented in my biohacker review) that downloadable medicine is no longer science fiction...

 Mechanism of Action

Weighing Kratom

A 2013 Temple University paper stated:

Several characteristics of these compounds suggest a classic "opioid" mechanism of action: nanomolar affinity for opioid receptors, competitive interaction with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, and two-way analgesic cross-tolerance with morphine. However, other characteristics of the compounds suggest novelty, particularly chemical structure and possible greater separation from side effects.


Mitragynine has been fairly well established as an addictive compound. Probably part of the reason why it's been banned from human consumption in the United States. However, some human studies indicate that it's a relatively harmless addiction.

A 2015 study of +290 Kratom "addicts" in Malaysia concluded:

Findings showed that regular kratom users do not experience major impairments in their social functioning, despite being dependent on kratom for prolonged periods.

A similar 2014 human study:

More than half of the regular users (>6 month of use) developed severe Kratom dependence problems, while 45% showed a moderate Kratom dependence...

It went on to give some dosage guidelines:

The average amount of the psychoactive compound, mitragynine, in a single dose of a Kratom drink was 79mg, suggesting an average daily intake of 276.5mg. Regular users who consumed ≥3 glasses Kratom per day, had higher odds of developing severe Kratom dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and inability to control Kratom craving.

It concluded:

The findings from this study show that regular Kratom use is associated with drug dependency, development of withdrawal symptoms, and craving. These symptoms become more severe with prolonged use and suggest a stronger control of the drug.

Habitual users of mitragynine could show withdrawal syndromes, such as...

  • Hostility
  • Aggression
  • Rhinitis
  • Inability to work
  • Excess tears
  • Muscle and bone aches
  • Jerky limb movement

If you have an addictive personality type, if you've had a history of issues with...

  • Prescription drugs
  • Alcoholism
  • Cocaine
  • Smoking
  • Trauma or PTSD
  • Child Abuse
  • Food addiction
  • Sex or porn addiction

You'll want to stay far away from addictive compounds like Kratom. You should also stay away from other less demonized, yet highly addictive consumables, like sugar and bread. If you don't have an addictive personality type, you'll probably be fine with Kratom.


A 2014 Thai study was conducted on suicide risk, from its abstract:

Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users (54% Kratom) with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide...

It concluded:

A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide risk in illicit drug users.

This makes me think of the bizarre case study in Malcolm Gladwell's book of the Micronesian suicide epidemic among male teenagers. I think the conclusion was that these Asian cultures are more collective, and the young men struggling for acknowledgment and attention, were using suicide as a way of communicating with their culture in a way that they knew they would be heard. However, these suicides are not just an Asian phenomenon...

  • In a recent suicide case in San Diego, California Kratom showed up in the postmortem analysis of a 24-year-old man, who had a serious history of alcoholism and depression.
  • There was a similar case in Norway of a middle-aged man who was found dead of - they suspect due to high levels of mitragynine in his blood - Kratom intoxication. This man had a similar history of drug abuse and depression.

Morbid reminders that those with borderline personality disorders should stay well away from these kinds of psychoactives.

 Side Effects

Be VERY careful what else you are on if you take Kratom. Most of the documented suicide cases were depressed alcoholics, so if you are a regular social drinker, you probably want to stay away from Kratom. I did my Kratom trial during a 90-day period of no booze.

A 2011 Swedish paper concluded that Kratom in combination with Tramadol has resulted in at least 9 deaths:

We believe that the addition of the potent mu-receptor agonist O-desmethyltramadol to powdered leaves from Kratom contributed to the unintentional death of the nine cases presented and conclude that intake of Krypton is not as harmless as it often is described on internet websites.

Abuse of Propylhexedrine (marketed as Benzedrex or Obesin) and Kratom has resulted in at least one death.

 Bottom Line

Here's my opinion after actually using Kratom myself for several months...

With the exception of the pain issue, there are more efficacious smart drugs and Nutraceuticals that have the same effects as Kratom. So if your objective is to...
Find more motivation to work...
Take Racetams

Stay focused on your entrepreneurial projects...
Take Modafinil 

Overcome depression...
Take Vitamin B12 

Overcome social anxiety...
Take Phenibut (or make it a daily habit to get out of your social comfort zone) 

You need something to relax at the end of a stressful day...
Take L-Theanine (or better yet do 10-20 minutes of meditation) 

These are actually demonstrated by high-quality human scientific studies as being effective solutions. All Kratom has going for it is a bunch of YouTube videos and people posting their experiences anonymously on forums.

 Why Take Kratom

However, there are a few good reasons I can think of why you would want to try it:

  • You've tried everything else. You have chronic pain or treatment-resistant depression and you've tried all the mainstream or holistic solutions and they haven't worked for you. Could the potential negatives of Kratom be worse than what you are already dealing with? Probably not.
  • You're struggling with opioid addiction. Despite what Kratom fanatics online might tell you, the herb falls into the general category of opioids. But it's relatively benign and moderate so it may be just what you need to get off harder drugs or narcotics. 
  • You (like me) just like to try weird new supplements and drugs. Throw strange molecules at your biology to see what happens.

If you have reason to believe that I've got it all wrong about Kratom, if you have some scientific evidence or data that Kratom may not deserve this negative treatment then please leave a comment here. I've made sound arguments here for my conclusions, so if you have equally sound evidence to the contrary, I invite that debate!


Gold Borneo
Green Maeng Da Borneo
Red Vein Maeng Da Malay
Brain training dip on Kratom
Lumosity training on red Kratom
2 Grams of White Vietnam
Red Vietnam


Withstand Kratom Withdrawal: Potentiating the Positive & Mitigating the Negative Effects of Kratom
Radio 3Fourteen - Jonny Enoch - The War on Kratom & Kratom Truth
Kratom Users Don't Deserve Freedom...
A blunt herbal performance enhancer ⭐⭐ Biohacker Review of Kratom
Kratom ? An opioid-based non-nootropic performance enhancer with a dark side


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